Every perfumist must have a solid understanding of what constitutes the top, heart, and base notes of a fragrance in order to optimize fragrance production. Originally, these three types of fragrance notes were primarily used to develop fine fragrances such as perfume and cologne. However, they have gone on to become an industry standard.
Each type of note has a different purpose, and understanding the purposes of these three basic fragrance components is the first step a perfumist must take to create great, vibrant products, whether they are designing other personal care products such as shampoo and conditioner, body soap, and lotion or they are producing cleaning products and room deodorizers.
Top notes are the most noticeable aromas within a fragrance. In fact, these are the aromas that the individual using a fragrance will first experience. Generally, top notes are crisp, sharp, or effervescent in quality. Top notes serve to help stimulate the senses and provide the first burst of fragrance when a product is used.
There are many different types of aromas that make up the typical top note. Often, these notes are fruity in nature. Citrus is perhaps one of the most popular types of top notes that a perfumist can use. Orange, grapefruit, and lemon are just three examples of citrus aromas that can be used to provide the sharp primary notes within a fragrance. Bergamot is another type of citrus aroma that is especially popular in the production of fine fragrances.
Other types of fruits that provide crisp top notes include apple, berry, and pear. Overall, these aromas are a bit on the sweeter side, and are perfect for the creation of more delicate aromas. While the majority of floral aromas would not generally be considered top notes, there are many herbal aromas that are clean and fresh and that are perfect for this use. These include sage and lavender, both of which are often combined with other top notes to create a richer and more complex aroma experience.
The middle notes are sometimes referred to as the “heart notes” of a fragrance. It is not difficult to see why, as these are the aromas that begin to appear upon the disappearance of a fragrance’s top notes. While the top notes provide the first burst of aroma to a fragrance, it is the middle notes that make a lasting impression and serve to give a product lasting appeal.
Middle notes must serve as the middle ground between the top notes and bottom notes, and tie everything together into a more appealing package. One of the biggest benefits of thinking carefully about the middle notes of a fragrance is being able to create a more complex product by tying together disparate top and bottom notes. This can help a perfumist to create something much more exciting.
The majority of middle notes are floral aromas. General floral aromas can be used for this purpose, or a perfumist can seek to recreate a specific type of floral aroma such as jasmine or rose. When a perfumist is choosing floral aromas for their product, it is important for them to think of ways to tie together that particular floral aroma to the other components in the fragrance – that is, if the floral aroma itself did not inspire the overall product.
Floral aromas are often used alongside everything from woody aromas to fruity aromas. For example, lavender is often combined with crisp lemon top notes, while rose and orange have been proven time and again to be a great pairing.
For more exotic aromas, or for something a little more masculine, spices can also serve as great middle notes. Nutmeg and lemongrass are rich, warm aromas that can be very appealing in different types of fragrances.
The bottom notes of a fragrance are commonly referred to as the fragrance’s base. The general definition of the bottom note of a fragrance is that it is designed to be noticeable only after the fragrance’s top notes have completely evaporated. When used in perfume, the bottom notes of a fragrance provide the lasting qualities of that product. When used in other applications, especially in laundry care and similar types of cleaning products, they must be capable of providing long-term aroma appeal to consumers.
Bottom notes are usually very warm and rich, and are often comprised of woods, musks, and more intense types of spices than those that are used for middle notes in fragrances. Vanilla is one of the most common types of bottom notes in use in fragrance creation. Vanilla is one of the most appealing aromas, and can be comforting and appealing even after many of the other notes in a product have entirely faded away.
Other types of bottom notes that are commonly used in fragrance creation include woody aromas.
Choosing Top, Middle, and Bottom Notes
There are many things for a perfumist to think of when they are choosing the three types of notes that they will use in their product. In general, the most important factor to keep in mind is that the middle notes of a fragrance can and should act as the link that binds all three together. A top note and a bottom note do not necessarily have to interact well – in fact, choosing very different top and bottom notes can create something that is a little more unusual and exciting. Keeping in mind the importance of blending the middle notes with the others can ensure that a product is well-rounded and appealing from first application until its final notes fade away.